FDI Is A Source Of Indian Economic Growth
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FDI is a source of Indian Economic Growth

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India is developing into an open-market economy. It is the fourth preferred destination for foreign investment just after the United States, China and Britain. India attracted overseas investment of US $8.1 billion in March, the highest ever monthly inflows. Cumulative FDI inflows for the fiscal 2011-12 amounted to US $36.50 billion.

The Indian economy has continuously recorded high growth rates and become an attractive destination for investment. Government offers various facilities to non-Indian resident to attract foreign investment in India. The factors that attract investment in India are stable economic policies, availability of cheap and quality human resources, and new unexplored markets. The government has taken various initiatives like - allowing foreign education providers to set up campuses in India, FDI in limited liability partnership firms, etc.

Impact of FDI on Indian economy

Foreign direct investment in India has enabled the country to attain a certain degree of financial stability and economic growth with the help of investments in different sectors. After liberalization of trade policies in India, there has been a positive GDP growth rate in country’s economy.

Foreign investment in India helps in developing the economy by generating employment, generating revenues in the form of tax and incomes, development of infrastructure, backward and forward linkages to the domestic firms for the requirements of raw materials, tools, business infrastructure, etc.

How to make FDI in India

Foreign direct investment in India is permitted in the form of financial collaborations, joint ventures, technical collaborations, capital markets and private placements.

Foreign investors are free to invest in India except few areas. There are some activities and sectors which require prior approval of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) or Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) for e.g. manufacture of cigarettes and tobacco, manufacture of electronic aerospace and defence equipments, manufacture of items exclusively reserved for small scale sector with more than 24 per cent overseas investment and all other proposals falling outside notified sectoral policy.

The foreign investors can invest in India in two ways:

Incorporation of an Indian company: The foreign investor can set up a separate legal entity in India under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The foreign investors can invest in such Indian company up to 100 per cent of capital based on sectoral guidelines specified by the Government of India.

Unincorporated entity: A foreign company can operate in India, by establishing a Branch Office of the other place of business (foreign entity), subject to conditions and activities permitted under the Foreign Exchange Management Regulations.

Who can invest in India?

A non-resident of India (other than a citizen of Pakistan or an entity incorporated in Pakistan) can invest in India, subject to the FDI Policy under automatic or government route plans.

Qualified financial Investors (QFIs) are permitted to invest through SEBI registered Depository Participants only in the equity shares of listed Indian companies through recognised stock exchanges in India under various SEBI guidelines.

Foreign institutional investors are allowed to invest in the capital markets in India through the portfolio investment scheme (PIS). Under this scheme, FIIs can acquire shares or debentures of Indian companies with the help of stock exchanges in India.